Description of a New Martian Vertebrate Species: Examples of Interplanetary Convergent Evolution and Vertebrate Adaptations to Martian Atmosphere
Amy R. Griffiths
Martian Anatomy, Department of Extraterrestrial Biology, PO Box 2223, Perth, WA 6148, Australia, Earth.
Abstract. An unknown bipedal vertebrate was observed on Mars in July, 2021. This represents the first recorded Martian vertebrate. The individual was detected and examined at distance through magnifying apparatus for seven minutes before it retreated beyond view. Capture was not attempted due to safety precautions, however further explorations are currently under planning. Observed anatomy implies a vertebrate structure, highly convergent with vertebrate Earth species. The key source of visible divergence between this species and those from Earth are adaptations to the low temperature and gravity atmosphere of Mars. An encephalization quotient (brain to body mass ratio) appearing to be unprecedented on Earth, footwear and ornamentation noted on the individual also strongly imply an advanced level of intelligence and culture in the species. This study describes the vertebrate, indicating visible points of convergent evolution with numerous Earth taxa, as well as the species’ unique adaptations to the Martian environment.
Methods: After detection by sonar software, the Martian was viewed by two researchers for a total of seven minutes. Each used the Series III Observer field lenses. All observations were noted and illustrations of the vertebrate were completed by Amy R. Griffiths within two days of the viewing. Visible adaptations and cases of interplanetary convergent evolution are described below.
Results: Hypotheses for individual adaptations are included